Categories
Human rights, identity and citizenship

Human rights, identity and citizenship

(…) The network of fundamental rights gives everyone the dignity of a person, leaves no one shipwrecked in their own destiny, keeps alive the hope of peace, freedom, equality. Human rights are therefore a limit both to the authority of States and to the unconditional freedom of individuals; they represent the paradigm and the litmus test of the very juridicality of the legal systems. There is no law, no right, no justice without the full recognition of rights and the effective possibility of realizing them. (…) When the protection of human rights breaks the logic of borders to affirm a public order of justice for people, one must have the courage to consider the centrality of man as a link between the various constitutional traditions, different sources of law, and even the different jurisprudences, national and international, which require, indeed impose to accept the virtuous and reciprocal contamination of juridical knowledge as a lever and anchor of a firmly communal and supportive perspective. The perspective of rights breaks down all ideological barriers. The distinctions between internal and external law, between common law and civil law, between public and private, blur. (…)

Pietro Grasso President of the Senate of the Republic

Source: https://www.senato.it/application/xmanager/projects/leg18/file/repository/relazioni/libreria/novita/XVII/Diritti_uomo_cittadino.pdf


What are the properties that make someone a certain individual and distinguish from everything else that exists in the world? Are they purely physical properties or are they also mental characteristics? What is the nature of human persons? What causes a given person to exist at different times, surviving a drastic series of changes, but always remaining the same entity? And what changes could it not survive? (…) From this first list of questions two main themes emerge: the problem of the nature of people and that of the criteria of their identity over time.

Michele Di Francesco – Enciclopedia Italiana Treccani – VII Appendice (2007)

Categories
Freedom of expression Human rights, identity and citizenship Social inclusion and fight against discriminations Socio-economic issues and migrations

LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND Towards Inclusive Citizenship in Arab Countries

PDF) Leaving No One Behind Towards Inclusive Citizenship in Arab Countries Arab  Human Development Report Research Paper

Arab Human Development Report

LEAVING NO ONE BEHIND
Towards Inclusive Citizenship in Arab Countries

Research Paper published for the United Nations Development Programme – Regional Bureau for Arab States

Authors: Adel Abdellatif, Paola Pagliani and Ellen Hsu

Introduction
Building inclusive societies has been a challenge in Arab countries, and the limitations in inclusion have become more acute since 2011, as the relationship between citizens and the state — and among various social
groups — has deteriorated in some countries.
Despite different governance structures, all Arab countries manifest serious fault lines in modern notions of citizenship.
The starting point of this paper is that the Arab region’s human development fault lines have grown more complex since 2011 — and deepened in several countries. Today many people live insecure lives, more people live under persistent pressures that inhibit them from realizing their potential as human beings, and too many lives are cut short as armed conflicts take their grim toll. If the ongoing conflicts are not resolved and demographic projections of faster population growth in crisis countries are realized, 40 percent of the people in Arab countries will live in crisis and conflict in 2030, when the SDGs should be achieved.
Achieving the SDGs in Arab countries thus requires addressing the most debilitating development problems related to citizenship in a region where the relations between the state and society remain deeply fraught and
contested amid political, social and economic fragility.
Given the importance of understanding, and potentially explaining, manifestations of exclusion and inequality, the link between citizenship and human development needs to be further explored.

Document: arab-hdr.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/UNDP_Citizenship_and_SDGs_report_web.pdf

Source: www.hdr.undp.org/en

Categories
Europe and the Mediterranean Focus Freedom of expression Human rights, identity and citizenship Mediterranean and Middle East Social inclusion and fight against discriminations

The EU’s Democracy, Human Rights and Resilience Discourse and Its Contestation

Authors: Pacello, Maria Cristina, Huber Daniela, Kerrou M., Nouira A

Introduction

The paper will first provide a background analysis, based on a critical review of the discourses of the EU and other key international and regional players, discursive positions of civil society actors (including at this stage only documents produced by civil
society networks which span the Mediterranean) and the academic discourse. The aim is not only to de-construct the EU’s own discourse on democracy, human rights and now resilience; it also juxtaposes it to the discourse of other top-down and bottom-up actors. The academic
discourse produced in Europe takes a specific role in this overall picture as it generally sits within the larger EU discourse, even though a critical literature is emerging which resists this discourse. It is to this latter literature that this work package seeks to contribute. The second
and third parts of this paper, therefore, depart from the Euro-centrism of the literature in two ways. First, the second part gives an introductory overview on the central role played by civil society in the Arab uprisings and beyond. Unfortunately, very little is known in the literature
about how individual and civil society actors based in the four country case studies perceive their own role in their countries and which political ideas they are promoting for their countries.
The third part of this paper, therefore, outlines a methodology aimed at filling this gap by conducting discourse analysis of relevant documents produced by a selected number of civil society actors in such countries, and conducting recursive interviews with these stakeholders.

Document: iris.unive.it/retrieve/handle/10278/3701654/149195/medreset_cp_4.pdf

Categories
Focus Freedom of expression Gender equality Human rights, identity and citizenship Social inclusion and fight against discriminations

New Trends in Identity Politics in the Middle East and North Africa and Their Impact on State–Society Relations

Title: New Trends in Identity Politics in the Middle East and North Africa and Their Impact on State–Society Relations

Authors: Silvia Colombo Enrico Campelli Francesca Caruso Raffaella A. Del Sarto

State–society relations in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have been deeply impacted by the dynamics around collective identities in the aftermath of the Arab uprisings and of other domestic and regional far-reaching developments, such as the failed coup attempt in Turkey or the ramifications of the Syrian conflict. It is therefore of utmost importance to discuss the changes (or lack thereof) in the articulation of collective identities, what pressures shape them, and what impact this has on the societal actors and ultimately on their relations with the state institutions and policies. In this regard two trends can be identified whereby pluralization and hybridization in certain countries, for example Morocco and Tunisia, stand in opposition to entrenchment and polarization, as illustrated by the Israeli and the Turkish cases. The result is heightened conflictuality in state–society relations and within societies at large in the MENA with the risk of spillovers at the regional level.

Document: www.iai.it/sites/default/files/menara_wp_14.pdf

Source: www.iai.it

Categories
Europe and the Mediterranean Focus Social inclusion and fight against discriminations Socio-economic issues and migrations Uncategorized

Thirty years of EU-Mediterranean Policies (1989-2019): an assessment

Authors: Bichara Khader & Haizam Amirah-Fernández


Document www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/wcm/connect/f2a74e40-1be3-483c-a2bd-5ac712c5f657/WP8-2020-Khader-Amirah-Thirty-years-EU-Mediterranean-Policies-1989-2019-an-assessment.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=f2a74e40-1be3-483c-a2bd-5ac712c5f657

Web site:

Real Istituto Elcano www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_es/!ut/p/a1/04_Sj9CPykssy0xPLMnMz0vMAfGjzOKNQ1zcA73dDQ0MLIOcDRzdLbxDLE0NDcI8TIAKIoEKDHAARwNC-gtyQxUB1ntQFg!!/dl5/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/

Categories
Focus Socio-economic issues and migrations

The EU’S Migration, Asylum and Mobility Policies in the Mediterranean

This MEDRESET Policy Brief summarizes the findings of MEDRESET’s WP7 on migration, mobility and asylum in the Mediterranean and identifies policy implications.

Migration, asylum and mobility represent an increasingly contentious field of governance in EuroMediterranean relations. In the Mediterranean area, cooperation in this policy field has long been characterized by fundamental divergences of interests and approaches, not only between the northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean, or between (predominantly) sending, transit and receiving countries, but also among institutional and civil society actors on both sides of the Mediterranean. (…)

By adopting a non-Eurocentric approach, and based on extensive empirical research, WP7 found that the EU’s discourse in the migration policy field is informed by two dominant frames – unilateralism and securitization – which translate into largely Eurocentric, securitizing and conditionality-based policies and practices. Moreover, WP7 found that, despite the existence of country-specific issues and different migration policy agendas in the Maghreb and the Middle East, SEM (South-Eastern Mediterranean) stakeholders in the four target countries (Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey) share a common perception of EU migration policies as abusively and inappropriately restrictive and ineffective, elaborated in a unilateral way and imposed through unbalanced power relations.

With a high level of consensus among themselves, they recommend that the EU radically change its approach to Euro-Mediterranean relations and to migration governance in particular, in order to make it less Eurocentric and security-oriented, and more inclusive, balanced and responsive.
This policy brief describes, firstly, how stakeholders perceive the Mediterranean space and EU practices in it, and, secondly, which alternative policies they recommend.

Documento www.iai.it/sites/default/files/medreset_pb_5.pdf

In arabo www.iai.it/sites/default/files/medreset_pb_5_ar.pdf

Cordiscordis.europa.eu/project/id/693055/it

Categories
Focus Gender equality

EU Approach to Gender Equality in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Region

Title: EU Approach to Gender Equality in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Region

Author: Hala Ghosheh

The EU legal and political framework reflects a strong commitment to promoting gender equality. Policy dialogue, gender mainstreaming and targeted gender programming are some of the instruments that the EU uses in “partnering countries”. There is a noticeable difference in how the EU approaches gender equality internally (within Europe) as opposed to externally (partnering countries and foreign aid), which not only reflects the economic and political “power over” approach but suggests as well that the EU is setting the gender agenda on behalf of its “partners”. The findings of this paper illustrate that the EU gender equality approach is falling short from adopting a more substantive transformative approach that would lead women to realize their “power within” to claim their rights. Furthermore, EU support to gender equality relies on short-term projects that focus on addressing “trends” determined by the international community and/or the EU priorities for the country, which undermines the substance of the international and EU agendas. On many occasions the findings show that consultations on local priorities are not sufficiently inclusive and rely on the same “favoured organizations” to inform them. The EU’s contribution to promoting gender equality was reported as insufficient, inconsistent and not responsive. MEDRESET papers indicate that gender equality was not systematically or effectively addressed in sectors of agriculture, migration, industry and energy. The mismatch between, on the one hand, the EU focus, and on the other, local priorities and addressing specific gender needs, including socio-economic needs of women, was strikingly evident. The EU role in realizing gender equality and human rights has, especially after the Arab Spring, been somewhat conflicted. EU has prioritized its self-interest and security (hidden influences and powers) over human rights and gender equality in the region. There was general agreement that the EU should “adopt a more critical stance toward human rights violations including women’s rights”.

Document: www.iai.it/sites/default/files/medreset_pp_9.pdf

Source: www.iai.it

Categories
Europe and the Mediterranean Focus

Problematizing Effectiveness and Potential of EU Policies in the Mediterranean

Titolo: Problematizing Effectiveness and Potential of EU Policies in the Mediterranean

Autore: Münevver Cebeci

This report aims at combining the research results of the previous Work Packages (1–7) of the MEDRESET project with a view to evaluating the effectiveness and potential of EU policies. It does so through an analysis of the EU’s framing of the Mediterranean and how it is perceived by its Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEM) partners, how the key stakeholders depict the region as such, and how these conceptions and perceptions of the Mediterranean are reflected in their interaction in substantive issue areas, on the geopolitical and sectoral level. The major argument of this report is that the EU’s depoliticizing, technocratic and securitized approach towards the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean erodes the Union’s credibility, detracts from its effectiveness and seriously limits its potential in terms of providing bottom-up policies geared towards promoting democracy, human rights and the rule of law, prioritizing development, favouring youth employment and gender equality, and creating an open, inclusive and integrated Mediterranean region. The findings of the WPs 2–7 proved that the arguments put forward by WP1 were accurate and the research conducted through interviews with key stakeholders and bottom-up actors in the region and in Europe demonstrated that they also regard the EU’s approach towards the region as highly Eurocentric, interest-driven, top-down and thus unequal/asymmetric, as well as depoliticizing, technocratic and highly securitized.

Documento: www.iai.it/sites/default/files/medreset_pp_8.pdf

Fonte: www.iai.it

Cordis: cordis.europa.eu/project/id/693055/reporting

Categories
Socio-economic issues and migrations

Understanding Migration Journeys from Migrants’ Perspectives

WORLD MIGRATION REPORT 2018: CHAPTER 7

Authors: Marie Mcauliffe, Adrian Kitimbo, Alexandra M Goossens, Akm Ahsan Ullah

Introduction

The chapter discusses migration journeys and how migrants consider migration before and during such travel, acknowledging that there is a great diversity of experiences, but that nevertheless, some important aspects can be drawn from current migration research and practice. The next section provides a brief examination of migrants’ “self-agency” (i.e. migrants’abilities to make and act upon independent decisions and choices) and the “continuum of agency” that explains variations in choice when it comes to migrating. Section three then discusses key and emerging issues in migration research that are signalling shifts in how contemplations of migration and migration journeys have been changing for migrants themselves in recent years: (mis)information; preference for visas; risk and reward; and pressures to migrate. In the following section, we summarize some of the recent advances in research methods and technology that are making migrant-centric research more feasible globally.

The conclusion then discusses implications for research and policy initiatives, including those related to the global compact on migration. Overall, we argue that better understandings of migrants’ choices about migration and migration journeys are of fundamental importance to more effective policymaking on migration.

Document publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2018_en_chapter7.pdf

Sito Web worldmigrationreport.iom.int

Categories
Focus Socio-economic issues and migrations

MIGRATION AND MIGRANTS: REGIONAL DIMENSIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS

Chapter 3 MIGRATION AND MIGRANTS: REGIONAL DIMENSIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS (WORLD MIGRATION REPORT 2018

Introduction

This chapter seeks to assist migration policymakers, practitioners and researchers in making better sense of international migration by using a geographic perspective to present regional migration overviews. The analysis in this chapter focuses on six world regions as defined by the United Nations, and used by UN DESA and other organizations: Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America, Oceania.
For each of these regions, the analysis includes: (i) an overview and brief discussion of key migration statistics based on data compiled and reported by UN DESA and UNHCR; and (ii) succinct descriptions of “key features
and developments” in migration in the region, based on a wide range of data, information and analyses from international organizations, researchers and analysts. To account for the diversity of migration patterns, trends and issues within each of the six regions, the descriptive narratives of “key features and recent developments” are presented at the subregional level. For Africa, for example, this cascade approach allows for the presentationof insights from statistical data on Africa as a whole, followed by summary information on subregions including North Africa, West and Central Africa, and Eastern and Southern Africa. A breakdown of the regions and subregions is provided in appendix A. These subregional overviews provide information on migration patterns from, within and to the subregions.

Beyond this, attention has been paid to particular features that exist in
a subregion, such as labour migration and remittances, irregular migration, migrant smuggling, displacement (internal and international), and integration. The subregional overviews are not intended to be exhaustive, but are designed to be illustrative of key trends, patterns and issues.

Documento

publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2018_en_chapter3.pdf

Report www.iom.int/world-migration-report-2018

Sito Web worldmigrationreport.iom.int