Categories
Europe and the Mediterranean Freedom of expression Immigration Social inclusion and fight against discriminations Socio-economic issues and migrations

Mobility Policies in the Mediterranean

Title: The EU’S Migration, Asylum and Mobility Policies in the Mediterranean

This MEDRESET Policy Brief summarizes the findings of MEDRESET’s WP7 on migration, mobility and asylum in the Mediterranean and identifies policy implications.

Introduction

Migration, asylum and mobility represent an increasingly contentious field of governance in Euro-Mediterranean relations. In the Mediterranean area, cooperation in this policy field has long been characterized by fundamental divergences of interests and approaches, not only between the northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean, or between (predominantly) sending, transit and receiving countries, but also among institutional and civil society actors on both sides of the Mediterranean.

MEDRESET Work Package 7 (WP7) was aimed: firstly, at developing a deeper knowledge of the diverse perceptions and priorities of different stakeholders with regard to migration; secondly, at evaluating the EU’s policies and role in the field of migration, mobility and asylum in the southern and eastern Mediterranean (SEM) region from the viewpoint of grassroots actors, at both the local and the EU level; and thirdly, at formulating a set of policy recommendations that reflect the perspective of civil societystakeholders, especially from SEM countries, with the purpose of innovating the governance of migration in the Mediterranean.

By adopting a non-Eurocentric approach, and based on extensive empirical research, WP7 found that the EU’s discourse in the migration policy field is informed by two dominant frames – unilateralism and securitization – which translate into largely Eurocentric, securitizing and conditionality-based policies and practices. Moreover, WP7 found that, despite the existence of country-specific issues and different migration policy agendas in the Maghreb and the Middle East, SEM stakeholders in the four target countries (Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey) share a common perception of EU migration policies as abusively and inappropriately restrictive and ineffective, elaborated in a unilateral way and imposed through unbalanced power relations.

With a high level of consensus among themselves, they recommend that the EU radically change its approach to Euro-Mediterranean relations and to migration governance in particular, in order to make it less Eurocentric and security-oriented, and more inclusive, balanced and responsive.

This policy brief describes, firstly, how stakeholders perceive the Mediterranean space and EU practices in it, and, secondly, which alternative policies they recommend.

Document: www.iai.it/sites/default/files/medreset_pb_5.pdf

En arabe: www.iai.it/sites/default/files/medreset_pb_5_ar.pdf

Source: www.iai.it

Cordis: cordis.europa.eu/project/id/693055/it

Categories
Europe and the Mediterranean Focus Immigration Social inclusion and fight against discriminations Socio-economic issues and migrations Youth and the Mediterranean

Refugee Movements in the Middle East: Old Crises, New Ideas

Title: Refugee Movements in the Middle East: Old Crises, New Ideas

Auteur: Shaden Khallaf

The MENA region has been dealing with waves of refugee crises for decades. Addressing urban and protracted refugee crises in the region contributed to triggering reflection on the global governance of refugee protection. The Global Compact on Refugees now sets out the parameters for stronger solidarity and responsibility-sharing, based on multi-stakeholder partnerships, inclusive and comprehensive solutions, and stronger emphasis on host community support and engagement as the new way forward.

Document: https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/menara_wp_29.pdf

Source: www.iai.it

Categories
Environment and climate change Focus Mediterranean and Middle East Socio-economic issues and migrations

The MENA Region in the Global Energy Markets

Title: The MENA Region in the Global Energy Markets

Author: Emanuela Menichetti Abdelghani El Gharras Barthélémy Duhamel Sohbet Karbuz

This paper explores how the current dynamics in the energy market sector affect, and are affected by, the interactions between the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and the global order. In particular, it aims to answer the overarching question: “Is MENA peripheral to or embedded in global dynamics in relation to energy?” To do so, the paper builds on the methodology and concept paper issued by the MENARA consortium in November 2017 and particularly seeks to address the research questions identified in the paper. After presenting an overview of the main global and regional energy trends, the paper analyses the current relationships between the key global energy players and the MENA countries at policy, industry and market levels. It discusses the role of critical actors that have an influence on the MENA energy landscape, and identifies the main hotspots for discussion.

Document: www.iai.it/sites/default/files/menara_wp_21.pdf

Source: www.iai.it

Categories
Environment and climate change Focus Mediterranean and Middle East Socio-economic issues and migrations

Water and Food Security Strategies in the MENA Region

Title: Water and Food Security Strategies in the MENA Region

Author: Martin Keulertz

Food security in the MENA region will become one of the key issues of the 21st century. If insufficiently addressed, it may lead to severe social, environmental, economic and political consequences. Given high population growth across the region and the fact that water could be a bottleneck for agricultural production, the region will have to reform its agricultural sector toward resource-efficient, high-value crop farming systems. Europe can play a key role by promoting trade between the MENA and Europe, by increasing investment in the MENA region for food and water security and by strengthening policy institutions to manage every drop of water in the most efficient manner.

Document: https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/menara_fn_18.pdf

Source: www.iai.it

Categories
Environment and climate change Focus Mediterranean and Middle East

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTIN THE MENA REGION

Titolo: Sustainable Development in the MENA Region

Autori: Edgar Göll André Uhl Jakob Zwiers

In the MENA region, the realization of the United Nations General Assembly’s SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) is limited and slow. The priorities given to the seventeen SDGs differ significantly across the region due to the specific needs and situations of each country. Positive changes can be observed, for example for renewable energy, while other important goals remain unattained. Conflicts present a major obstacle for advancement. One step forward would be to establish institutions to concentrate efforts and mobilize action within all segments of society. The EU could support such developments by enhancing peer-to-peer contacts and cooperation.

Allegato: www.iai.it/sites/default/files/menara_fn_20.pdf

FonteIstituto Affari Internazionali www.iai.it

Categories
Environment and climate change Focus Socio-economic issues and migrations

SoED 2020 : State of Environment and Development in Mediterranean

Author United Nations Environment Programme – Mediterranean Action Plan – Plan Bleu

Introduction
Over the last decades, human-induced pressures have increasingly affected the Mediterranean region.
Population growth and unsustainable production and consumption patterns have led to environmental degradation. Despite some progress, economic growth continues to increase resource consumption and carbon emissions. Land- and sea-use change, in particular on the coast, are detrimental to the environment. Exploitation of resources and organisms, pollution and climate change are projected to exacerbate pre-existing fragilities in the Mediterranean, leading to “multiple stresses and systemic
failures” (IPCC, 20141), putting health and livelihoods at risk.
Progress has been achieved in policy responses and actions to manage the Mediterranean more sustainably. Results are positive compared to scenarios with no intervention. However, these results have not been sufficient to reduce the most significant pressures on the environment and to safeguard the Mediterranean for present and future generations while meeting human development needs.
Current trends do not allow achievement of Good Environmental Status (GES) of the Mediterranean Sea by 2020. In line with worldwide trends, “global goals for 2030 and beyond may only be achieved through transformative changes across economic, social, political and technological factors” (IPBES, 20192).
Urgent and collective efforts for transformative change are required to safeguard the Mediterranean environment, while simultaneously fostering human development, taking into account differences between Mediterranean countries. Mediterranean countries have committed to achieve GES of the Mediterranean Sea and coast and more largely the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) under the United Nations 2030 Agenda. A fundamental reorganization of economic and social systems, including changes in paradigms and values, is required to achieve these commitments.

Document planbleu.org/soed/

Website planbleu.org

Categories
Environment and climate change Freedom of expression Human rights, identity and citizenship Immigration Mediterranean and Middle East Mediterranean in the world Social inclusion and fight against discriminations Socio-economic issues and migrations

IEMed Mediterranean Yearbook 2020

IEMed Mediterranean Yearbook 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic not only conditions the Mediterranean region’s evolution, but also affects all areas of its society, across the board. That’s why the Yearbook devotes its Dossier to analysing the perspectives of Euromed relations in times of the coronavirus through the prisms of different themes while the articles of the Panorama section (short articles on the most relevant themes in the Mediterranean area) offer a transversal vision of the effects of the pandemic on regions, countries and strategic sectors.

The Keys section focuses on popular mobilizations that have taken place in the MENA region, climate change in the Mediterranean, Europe’s relations with Africa, the status quo of the conflicts in the region and their geopolitical context.

Finally, the Yearbook offers chronologies, statistics and maps, which provide a wealth of information and serve as the perfect complement to the analysis offered in the articles.

Document www.iemed.org/publicacions-en/historic-de-publicacions/anuari-de-la-mediterrania/sumaris/iemed-mediterranean-yearbook-2020?set_language=en

Categories
Africa and the Mediterranean Conflicts Freedom of expression Gender equality Human rights, identity and citizenship Social inclusion and fight against discriminations Socio-economic issues and migrations

Women and Gender in the Middle East and North Africa: Mapping the Field and Addressing Policy Dilemmas at the Post-2011 Juncture

Title: Women and Gender in the Middle East and North Africa: Mapping the Field and Addressing Policy Dilemmas at the Post-2011 Juncture

Author: Katerina Dalacoura

This report offers a “map” of the diverse situations of women in the post-2011 MENA region. It shows that there have been tremendous achievements and improvements in the lives of women in health and education but less progress in employment; and that legal inequalities remain widespread, as do limitations on women’s participation in politics and civil society. The report analyses the impact of recent events, particularly the conflicts, but also the political opportunities that came about as a result of the 2011 Arab uprisings. It also touches on the situation of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) individuals, and specifically their mobilization and changing attitudes towards their rights. The report ends by focusing on Western gender policy in the region. It argues for an approach that balances the ethical demands of individual and collective rights, and for a liberal position that respects and supports women’s and LGBT rights without being overly prescriptive about the values and choices that should govern the lives of individuals.

Document: https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/menara_fr_3.pdf

Source: www.iai.it

Categories
Conflicts Focus Freedom of expression Gender equality Human rights, identity and citizenship Mediterranean and Middle East Social inclusion and fight against discriminations Youth and the Mediterranean

Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East: Tradition, Identity and Power (1994)

Authors: Fatma Müge Göçek & Shiva Balaghi

Employing a broad, interdisciplinary perspective on gender relations, « Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East » questions long-standing stereotypes about the traditional subordination of women in the region. With essays on gender construction in Iran, Turkey, Israel, Morocco, Egypt, Lebanon, and the Occupied Territories, this collection offers a wide-ranging exploration of tradition, identity, and power in different parts of the Middle East. Seeking to overcome monolithic Western notions of women’s life in « the traditional society, » the essays in Part I reexamine the assumption that such societies leave little room for female participation. Part II focuses on the reconstruction of identities by women in Iran, Turkey, Israel, and the Occupied Territories.The authors examine the complex variables that contribute to the development of identities – including gender, class, and ethnicity – in various Middle Eastern societies, questioning whether certain identities are more important to women than others. These essays also look at the issue of group identity formation versus the autonomy of the individual. Part III looks at the relationship between gender and power in everyday life in Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, and Morocco, showing how power relations are constantly contested and renegotiated among family members and members of a community, between nations and between men and women. With its collection of enlightened and diverse contemporary perspectives on women in the Middle East, « Reconstructing Gender in the Middle East » is an important work that will have significant impact on the way we look at gender in traditional societies.

Document: https://books.google.it/books?hl=it&lr=&id=RIDouVTcz10C&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=identity+middle+east&ots=Fs5DZwBKgQ&sig=5dDiPVzrUizImoBdKfQQBuX4BBA#v=onepage&q=identity%20middle%20east&f=false

Categories
Environment and climate change Europe and the Mediterranean Focus Freedom of expression Gender equality Human rights, identity and citizenship Immigration Social inclusion and fight against discriminations Socio-economic issues and migrations Youth and the Mediterranean

Trends in Mediterranean Inequalities 1950-2015

Authors: Vittorio Daniele e Paolo Malanima (University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro)

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the trends of economic, social and political inequality among the Mediterranean countries in the period 1950-2015. After the examination of the inequalities in GDP per capita among and within nations, we present a human development index (HDI) that includes a measure of democratic achievements. The main result is that inequalities in income, after the rise from the 1950s onwards, declined from the start of the twenty-first century. Inequalities in HDI, instead, constantly diminished in the period under examination, while a process of democratization occurred. On the whole, despite the convergence among Mediterranean countries, economic inequalities are much deeper than those in social and political indicators.

Document: mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/78324/1/MPRA_paper_78324.pdf